M3 is a broad-spectrum chemokine-binding protein that inactivates inflammatory chemokines, including CCL2, CCL5, and CX3CL1. The aim of this study was to compare whether M3 could inhibit angiogenesis driven by inflammation or ischemia. Here, apolipoprotein E-/- mice were injected with adenoviral M3 (AdM3) or control adenoviral green fluorescent protein (AdGFP) 3 d prior to stimulating angiogenesis using 2 established models that distinctly represent inflammatory or ischemia-driven angiogenesis, namely the periarterial femoral cuff and hind limb ischemia. AdM3 reduced intimal thickening, adventitial capillary density, and macrophage accumulation in femoral arteries 21 d after periarterial femoral cuff placement compared with AdGFP-treated mice (P < 0.05). AdM3 also reduced mRNA expression of proangiogenic VEGF, inflammatory markers IL-6 and IL-1β, and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC)-activated synthetic markers Krüppel-like family of transcription factor 4 (KLF4) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ) in the inflammatory cuff model. In contrast, capillary density, VSMC content, blood flow perfusion, and VEGF gene expression were unaltered between groups in skeletal muscle following hind limb ischemia. In vitro, AdM3 significantly reduced human microvascular endothelial cell 1 proliferation, migration, and tubule formation by ∼17, 71.3, and 8.7% (P < 0.05) in macrophage-conditioned medium associating with reduced VEGF and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α mRNA but not in hypoxia (1% O2). Compared with AdGFP, AdM3 also inhibited VSMC proliferation and migration and reduced mRNA expression of KLF4 and PDGFRβ under inflammatory conditions. In contrast, AdM3 had no effect on VSMC processes in response to hypoxia in vitro. Our findings show that broad-spectrum inhibition of inflammatory chemokines by M3 inhibits inflammatory-driven but not ischemia-driven angiogenesis, presenting a novel strategy for the treatment of diseases associated with inflammatory-driven angiogenesis.-Ravindran, D., Cartland, S. P., Bursill, C. A., Kavurma, M. M. Broad-spectrum chemokine inhibition blocks inflammation-induced angiogenesis, but preserves ischemia-driven angiogenesis.
Keywords: M3; blood vessel remodeling; chemokine blockade.