Although endoscopic intervention is the mainstay for palliation of malignant biliary obstruction, a percutaneous approach has been preferred, particularly in patients with advanced high-grade hilar malignant biliary obstruction, because of the technical difficulty and risk of complications. However, recently, primary endoscopic palliation using plastic or metal stents has had higher technical and clinical success with fewer adverse events than the percutaneous approach. Endoscopic interventions are being done more and more frequently because of advances in metal stents, accessories, and techniques. However, several concerns, such as optimal stent type, number, and deployment method, remain to be resolved. Therefore, we reviewed the literature in order to identify the optimal biliary stenting strategy for patients with hilar malignant biliary obstruction, focusing on stent type (plastic vs metal), number (unilateral [single] vs bilateral [multiple]), and deployment method (stent-in-stent vs stent-by-stent).
Keywords: biliary; drainage; hilar; obstruction; stent.
© 2019 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.