Bone mineral density in virologically suppressed people aged 60 years or older with HIV-1 switching from a regimen containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate to an elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide single-tablet regimen: a multicentre, open-label, phase 3b, randomised trial

Lancet HIV. 2019 Oct;6(10):e655-e666. doi: 10.1016/S2352-3018(19)30195-X.

Abstract

Background: Tenofovir alafenamide is associated with less renal and bone toxicity than tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and might improve the long-term safety of antiretroviral therapy. We aimed to investigate the effect on bone mineral density of switching from a regimen containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate to one containing tenofovir alafenamide in participants aged 60 years and older.

Methods: We did a prospective, open-label, multicentre, randomised trial in 36 European centres. Participants were virologically suppressed (HIV-1 RNA <50 copies per mL), aged 60 years or older, on a tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-containing regimen and were randomly assigned (2:1) via an interactive web-response system to open-label elvitegravir (150 mg), cobicistat (150 mg), emtricitabine (200 mg), and tenofovir alafenamide (10 mg) daily or continued therapy containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (300 mg). Participants were stratified by spine and hip bone mineral density categories. Primary endpoints were change from baseline to week 48 in spine and hip bone mineral density with a null hypothesis of zero between-group difference tested at a significance level of 0·05. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02616783.

Findings: Between Dec 22, 2015, and March 21, 2018, 167 participants were randomly assigned to elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide (n=111 [66%]) or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (n=56 [34%]). One participant in the elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide group did not receive treatment and was excluded from all analyses. At week 48, the mean percentage change in spine bone mineral density was 2·24% (SD 3·27) in the elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide group and -0·10% (3·39) in the tenofovir disoproxil fumarate group (between-group difference 2·43% [95% CI 1·34-3·52]; p<0·0001), and mean percentage change in hip bone mineral density was 1·33% (2·20) in the elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide group and -0·73% (3·21) in the tenofovir disoproxil fumarate group (difference 2·04% [1·17-2·90]; p<0·0001). The most common adverse events were nasopharyngitis (12 [11%]), back pain (nine [8%]), and diarrhoea (eight [7%]) in the elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide group; and bronchitis (six [11%]), vitamin D deficiency (four [7%]), and arthralgia (four [7%]) in the tenofovir disoproxil fumarate group. 22 (20%) participants in the elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide group and one (2%) participant in the tenofovir disoproxil fumarate group had an adverse event that was considered to be related to treatment. No treatment-related serious adverse events were observed. The proportions of adverse events leading to premature treatment discontinuation were similar between groups (four [4%] in the elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide group; and one (2%) in the tenofovir disoproxil fumarate group).

Interpretation: The significantly improved bone mineral density, overall safety, and efficacy data show the feasibility of switching from a regimen containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate to elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide in virologically suppressed people living with HIV aged 60 years or older.

Funding: Gilead Sciences.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase III
  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adenine / administration & dosage
  • Adenine / analogs & derivatives
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Anti-HIV Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Bone Density / drug effects*
  • Cobicistat / administration & dosage
  • Emtricitabine / administration & dosage
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy*
  • HIV Infections / physiopathology
  • HIV Infections / virology
  • HIV-1 / drug effects
  • HIV-1 / physiology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Quinolones / administration & dosage
  • Tablets / administration & dosage
  • Tenofovir / administration & dosage*

Substances

  • Anti-HIV Agents
  • JTK 303
  • Quinolones
  • Tablets
  • Tenofovir
  • GS-7340
  • Emtricitabine
  • Adenine
  • Cobicistat

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT02616783