Compliance of elite athletes with vaccination recommendations is low mainly based on concerns about side-effects and perceived poor vaccine efficacy due to continued physical training. We therefore employed seasonal influenza vaccination to investigate the effect of regular physical training on vaccine-induced cellular and humoral immunity in elite athletes and controls. Lymphocyte subpopulations and vaccine-specific T-cells were quantified and functionally characterized from 45 athletes and 25 controls before, and 1, 2 and 26 weeks after vaccination. Moreover, influenza-specific antibodies and their neutralizing function were quantified. Both groups showed a significant increase in vaccine-reactive CD4 T-cell levels which peaked one week after vaccination (p < 0.0001). The increase was significantly more pronounced in athletes (4.1-fold) compared to controls (2.3-fold; p = 0.0007). The cytokine profile changed from multifunctional T-cells co-producing IFNγ, IL-2 and TNFα to cells with restricted cytokine expression. This change in functionality was associated with a significant increase in CTLA-4 expression (p < 0.0001), which again was more pronounced in athletes. Likewise, the increase in neutralizing antibodies was stronger in athletes (p = 0.004 for H1N1; p = 0.032 for H3N2). In conclusion, both groups mounted a strong vaccine-specific cellular and humoral immunity after standard vaccination. The more pronounced increase in specific T-cells and neutralizing antibodies indicates that high frequency and intensity of training enhance vaccine-responses in elite athletes.
Keywords: Cellular immunity; Competitive sports; Exercise; Humoral immunity; Influenza; Neutralizing antibodies; Physical activity; T cells; Vaccination.
Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.