Micronutrient Inadequacy in Short Sleep: Analysis of the NHANES 2005-2016

Nutrients. 2019 Oct 1;11(10):2335. doi: 10.3390/nu11102335.


One third of U.S. adults report short sleep (<7 h), which has been linked to negative health outcomes. Inadequate intake of micronutrients across the U.S. adult population has been reported, and a relationship between sleep conditions and micronutrient intake is emerging. This cross-sectional analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2005-2016) (n = 26,211) showed that participants with short sleep duration had a lower usual intake (Food + Supplements) of calcium, magnesium, and vitamin D in all adults aged 19+ years, and vitamin K in adults aged 19-50 years, even after adjusting for covariates. In addition, participants reporting short sleep had a higher percentage of individuals with intake lower than the estimated average requirement (EAR) across multiple nutrients. Age and gender differences were observed in the prevalence of inadequate intake across multiple nutrients. Adults aged 51-99 years with short sleep duration had inadequate intake with respect to more nutrients. In females there was an association between short sleep and a higher prevalence of inadequate intake (Food + Spp) for calcium, magnesium, and vitamins A, C, D, E, and K (above adequate intake). Conversely, males reporting short sleep only had an inadequate intake of vitamin D. Overall, we demonstrate that short sleep is associated with increased nutrient inadequacy, emphasizing the possible need for dietary supplementation.

Keywords: EAR; NHANES; adults; inadequate intake; micronutrient; micronutrient intake; nutrient; short sleep; sleep duration; sleep quality.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diet / adverse effects*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Micronutrients / administration & dosage
  • Micronutrients / deficiency*
  • Middle Aged
  • Nutrition Surveys
  • Nutritional Status
  • Nutritive Value*
  • Recommended Dietary Allowances*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors
  • Sleep Wake Disorders / diagnosis
  • Sleep Wake Disorders / epidemiology*
  • Sleep Wake Disorders / physiopathology
  • Sleep*
  • Time Factors
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Young Adult


  • Micronutrients