The treatment of gender dysphoria related to genitourinary anatomy can be effectively treated with phalloplasty. A phalloplasty may include some or all of the following: penile shaft, glans, shaft urethra, perineal urethra, scrotoplasty, vaginectomy, testicular implants, and erectile devices. The literature does not currently support a gold standard for how best to stage these procedures. This article reviews current techniques for phalloplasty staging and proposes that a staged urethral reconstruction is a reliable technique that allows for potential complications to be managed individually, while minimizing the severity of complications and their impact on the outcome of the final reconstruction.
Keywords: Phalloplasty; Phalloplasty complications; Phalloplasty staging; Urethral reconstruction.
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