"Staging" in Phalloplasty

Urol Clin North Am. 2019 Nov;46(4):581-590. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2019.07.011.


The treatment of gender dysphoria related to genitourinary anatomy can be effectively treated with phalloplasty. A phalloplasty may include some or all of the following: penile shaft, glans, shaft urethra, perineal urethra, scrotoplasty, vaginectomy, testicular implants, and erectile devices. The literature does not currently support a gold standard for how best to stage these procedures. This article reviews current techniques for phalloplasty staging and proposes that a staged urethral reconstruction is a reliable technique that allows for potential complications to be managed individually, while minimizing the severity of complications and their impact on the outcome of the final reconstruction.

Keywords: Phalloplasty; Phalloplasty complications; Phalloplasty staging; Urethral reconstruction.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Female
  • Gender Dysphoria / surgery*
  • Genitalia, Female / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Patient Selection
  • Penile Prosthesis
  • Postoperative Complications / epidemiology
  • Sex Reassignment Surgery / adverse effects
  • Sex Reassignment Surgery / methods*
  • Transsexualism*
  • Urethra / surgery