Background: Depression is a common cause of reduced well-being and prognosis in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, there is a lack of effective intervention strategies targeting depression.
Objective: The study aimed to evaluate the effects of a nurse-delivered and adapted internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) program aimed at reducing depression in patients with CVD.
Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted. A total of 144 patients with CVD with at least mild depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 [PHQ-9] score ≥5) were randomized 1:1 to a 9-week program of iCBT (n=72) or an active control participating in a Web-based discussion forum (online discussion forum [ODF], n=72). The iCBT program, which included 7 modules, was adapted to fit patients with CVD. Nurses with an experience of CVD care provided feedback and a short introduction to cognitive behavioral therapy. The primary outcome, depression, was measured using PHQ-9. Secondary outcomes were depression measured using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale-self-rating version (MADRS-S), health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measured using Short Form 12 (SF-12) survey and EuroQol Visual Analogue Scale (EQ-VAS), and the level of adherence. An intention-to-treat analysis with multiple imputations was used. Between-group differences in the primary and secondary outcomes were determined by the analysis of covariance, and a sensitivity analysis was performed using mixed models.
Results: Compared with ODF, iCBT had a significant and moderate treatment effect on the primary outcome depression (ie, PHQ-9; mean group difference=-2.34 [95% CI -3.58 to -1.10], P<.001, Cohen d=0.62). In the secondary outcomes, compared with ODF, iCBT had a significant and large effect on depression (ie, MADRS-S; P<.001, Cohen d=0.86) and a significant and moderate effect on the mental component scale of the SF-12 (P<.001, Cohen d=0.66) and the EQ-VAS (P<.001, Cohen d=0.62). Overall, 60% (n=43) of the iCBT group completed all 7 modules, whereas 82% (n=59) completed at least half of the modules. No patients were discontinued from the study owing to a high risk of suicide or deterioration in depression.
Conclusions: Nurse-delivered iCBT can reduce depression and improve HRQoL in patients with CVD, enabling treatment for depression in their own homes and at their preferred time.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02778074; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02778074.
Keywords: cardiovascular disease; cognitive behavior therapy; depression; internet; randomized controlled trial.
©Peter Johansson, Mats Westas, Gerhard Andersson, Urban Alehagen, Anders Broström, Tiny Jaarsma, Ghassan Mourad, Johan Lundgren. Originally published in JMIR Mental Health (http://mental.jmir.org), 03.10.2019.