The adult mammalian heart is incapable of clinically relevant regeneration. The regenerative deficit in adult mammalian heart contrasts with the fetal and neonatal heart, which demonstrate substantial regenerative capacity after injury. This deficiency in adult mammals is attributable to the lack of resident stem cells after birth, combined with an inability of pre-existing cardiomyocytes to complete cytokinesis. Studies of neonatal heart regeneration in mammals suggest that latent regenerative potential can be re-activated. Dissecting the cellular and molecular mechanisms that promote cardiomyocyte proliferation is key to stimulating true regeneration in adult humans. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of cardiomyocyte proliferation that suggest molecular approaches to heart regeneration.
Keywords: Cardiomyocyte proliferation; Growth factors; Heart regeneration; Hippo-YAP; Wnt.
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Building and Re-Building the Heart by Cardiomyocyte ProliferationMJ Foglia et al. Development 143 (5), 729-40. PMID 26932668. - ReviewThe adult human heart does not regenerate significant amounts of lost tissue after injury. Rather than making new, functional muscle, human hearts are prone to scarring a …
Upstream Regulation of the Hippo-Yap Pathway in Cardiomyocyte RegenerationMA Flinn et al. Semin Cell Dev Biol. PMID 31606277. - ReviewThe response of the adult mammalian heart to injury such as myocardial infarction has long been described as primarily fibrotic scarring and adverse remodeling with littl …
Wnt/β-catenin Signaling in Heart RegenerationG Ozhan et al. Cell Regen (Lond) 4 (1), 3. PMID 26157574.The ability to repair damaged or lost tissues varies significantly among vertebrates. The regenerative ability of the heart is clinically very relevant, because adult tel …
Hippo Pathway Effector Yap Promotes Cardiac RegenerationM Xin et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110 (34), 13839-44. PMID 23918388.The adult mammalian heart has limited potential for regeneration. Thus, after injury, cardiomyocytes are permanently lost, and contractility is diminished. In contrast, t …
Manipulating the Hippo-Yap Signal Cascade in Stem Cells for Heart RegenerationWF Cai et al. Ann Palliat Med 5 (2), 125-34. PMID 27121740. - ReviewThe Hippo-Yap pathway was originally recognized as a crucial signal cascade controlling organ size, and more recently identified as an important component involved in the …