Alzheimer's Disease and Its Potential Alternative Therapeutics

J Alzheimers Dis Parkinsonism. 2019;9(5):477. doi: 10.4172/2161-0460.1000477. Epub 2019 Sep 13.


Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that affects over 5 million individuals in the United States alone. Currently, there are only two kinds of pharmacological interventions available for symptomatic relief of AD; Acetyl Cholinesterase Inhibitors (AChEI) and N-methyl-D-aspartic Acid (NMDA) receptor antagonists and these drugs do not slow down or stop the progression of the disease. Several molecular targets have been implicated in the pathophysiology of AD, such as the tau (τ) protein, Amyloid-beta (Aβ), the Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) and more and several responses have also been observed in the advancement of the disease, such as reduced neurogenesis, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and iron overload. In this review, we discuss general features of AD and several small molecules across different experimental AD drug classes that have been studied for their effects in the context of the molecular targets and responses associated with the AD progression. These drugs include: Paroxetine, Desferrioxamine (DFO), N-acetylcysteine (NAC), Posiphen/-(-)Phenserine, JTR-009, Carvedilol, LY450139, Intravenous immunoglobulin G 10%, Indomethacin and Lithium Carbonate (Li2CO3).

Keywords: Alternative AD therapeutics; Alzheimer’s disease; Amyloid precursor protein; Amyloid-beta; Neurogenesis; Tau protein.