END-phenomenon negative bovine viral diarrhea virus that induces the host's innate immune response supports propagation of BVDVs with different immunological properties

Virology. 2019 Dec:538:97-110. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2019.09.016. Epub 2019 Oct 2.


Our previous study reported that persistently infected (PI) cattle of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) have co-infected with BVDV/END- and /END+ that promote and inhibit host's type-I interferon (IFN) production, respectively. However, the relationship between co-infection of immunologically distinct BVDVs and persistent infection as well as the biological significance of END- viruses remains unknown. Experiments using cultured cells revealed that END+ virus, which is unable to propagate in situations where the host's immune response is induced by IFN-α addition, is able to propagate under those conditions when co-infecting with END- virus. These results indicate that BVDV/END- can coexist with BVDV/END+ and that co-infection with END- viruses supports the propagation of END+ viruses. Our in vitro experiments strongly suggest that co-infection with END- virus is involved in the maintenance of persistent infection of BVDV.

Keywords: BVDV; Co-infection; END-Phenomenon.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bovine Virus Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease / genetics
  • Bovine Virus Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease / immunology*
  • Bovine Virus Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease / virology*
  • Cattle
  • Classical Swine Fever / genetics
  • Classical Swine Fever / immunology
  • Classical Swine Fever / virology
  • Classical Swine Fever Virus / genetics
  • Classical Swine Fever Virus / physiology
  • Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine Viral / genetics
  • Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine Viral / immunology
  • Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine Viral / physiology*
  • Guinea Pigs
  • Immunity, Innate
  • Interferon-alpha / genetics
  • Interferon-alpha / immunology
  • Swine


  • Interferon-alpha