Advances in perinatal intensive care have resulted in increased survival of the most immature preterm infants (born before 28 gestational weeks) and these new survivors are now entering school. While the clear majority of all children born preterm have a normal development, the extremely preterm infant is at a considerable risk for long term disabilities and rates of adverse development increase at lower gestational ages. Lung function is commonly affected in children born extremely preterm, and many have treatment for obstructive symptoms. The incidences of major neuromotor impairments, i.e. cerebral palsy, are low, but there is an increasing awareness of common cognitive and neuropsychiatric problems in extremely preterm children and their special needs in school. Extremely preterm children therefore need follow up of lung function and neurodevelopment at least until school start.