Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
. 2019 Oct 10;14(10):e0223238.
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0223238. eCollection 2019.

Positive Effect of an Electrolyzed Reduced Water on Gut Permeability, Fecal Microbiota and Liver in an Animal Model of Parkinson's Disease

Affiliations
Free PMC article

Positive Effect of an Electrolyzed Reduced Water on Gut Permeability, Fecal Microbiota and Liver in an Animal Model of Parkinson's Disease

Laura Bordoni et al. PLoS One. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

There is growing awareness within the scientific community of the strong connection between the inflammation in the intestine and the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). In previous studies we developed a PD animal model exposing pup rats to permethrin (PERM) pesticide. Here, we intended to explore whether in our animal model there were changes in gut permeability, fecal microbiota and hepatic injury. Moreover, we tested if the co-treatment with an electrolyzed reduced (ERW) was effective to protect against alterations induced by PERM. Rats (from postnatal day 6 to 21) were gavaged daily with PERM, PERM+ERW or vehicle and gut, liver and feces were analyzed in 2-months-old rats. Increased gut permeability, measured by FITC-dextran assay, was detected in PERM group compared to control and PERM+ERW groups. In duodenum and ileum, concentration of occludin was higher in control group than those measured in PERM group, whereas only in duodenum ZO-1 was higher in control than those measured in PERM and PERM+ERW groups. Number of inflammatory focis and neutrophils as well as iNOS protein levels were higher in livers of PERM-treated rats than in those of PERM+ERW and control rats. Fecal microbiota analysis revealed that Lachnospira was less abundant and Defluviitaleaceae more abundant in the PERM group, whereas the co-treatment with ERW was protective against PERM treatment since the abundances in Lachnospira and Defluviitaleaceae were similar to those in the control group. Higher abundances of butyrate- producing bacteria such as Blautia, U.m. of Lachnospiraceae family, U.m. of Ruminococcaceae family, Papillibacter, Roseburia, Intestinimonas, Shuttleworthia together with higher butyric acid levels were detected in PERM+ERW group compared to the other groups. In conclusion, the PD animal model showed increased intestinal permeability together with hepatic inflammation correlated with altered gut microbiota. The positive effects of ERW co-treatment observed in gut, liver and brain of rats were linked to changes on gut microbiota.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Figures

Fig 1
Fig 1
Plasma FITC-dextran concentrations (ng/mL) (A) and striatum dopamine levels (B) in 2-months-old rats treated in early life with vehicle (control), permethrin (PERM) or permethrin+electrolyzed reduced water (PERM+ERW). The increase of intestinal permeability and the decrease of striatum dopamine levels in the PERM group were improved by co-treatment with ERW. All data are expressed as means ± SEM. Group sizes in A: control (n = 8), PERM (n = 10) and PERM+ERW (n = 10), *P<0.05. Group sizes in B: n = 6 rats per group, **P<0.01.
Fig 2
Fig 2
Representative stainings of liver (A) and intestinal (B) sections in 2-month-old rats treated in early life with vehicle (control), permethrin (PERM) or permethrin+electrolyzed reduced water (PERM+ERW) from left to right, respectively (100X, 200X and 400X magnification). In A: a) hematoxylin-eosin staining with clusters (aggregates) of inflammatory cells indicated by arrows; b) infiltration of activated neutrophils assessed by staining chloroacetate esterase. Arrows indicate neutrophils; c) immunohistochemical detection of iNOS expression. In B: immunohistochemical detection of occludin in d) duodenum and e) ileum; and ZO-1 in f) duodenum and g) ileum.
Fig 3
Fig 3. Significance of alpha diversity estimators in fecal microbiota of 2-month-old rats treated in early life with vehicle (C), permethrin (PERM) or permethrin+electrolyzed reduced water (PERM+ERW).
Each group is made of n = 10 animals. *P<0.05; **P<0.01.
Fig 4
Fig 4. Comparison of variation in fecal microbiota of 2-month-old rats treated in early life with vehicle (Control), permethrin (PERM) or permethrin+electrolyzed reduced water (PERM+ERW).
Principal coordinate plot of weighted UniFrac distances between fecal samples. Each dot represents a sample: red, Control; blu, PERM; orange, PERM+ERW.
Fig 5
Fig 5. Relative abundance of 6 most predominant bacterial genera (relative abundance ≥ 85% in sample) in fecal microbiota of 2-month-old rats treated in early life with vehicle (Control), permethrin (PERM) or permethrin+electrolyzed reduced water (PERM+ERW).
All data are expressed as means ± SEM. Each group is made of n = 10 animals. *P<0.05; **P<0.01.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

References

    1. Nasuti C, Brunori G, Eusepi P, Marinelli L, Ciccocioppo R, Gabbianelli R. Early life exposure to permethrin: a progressive animal model of Parkinson's disease. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods. 2017;83: 80–86. 10.1016/j.vascn.2016.10.003 - DOI - PubMed
    1. Fedeli D, Montani M, Bordoni L, Galeazzi R, Nasuti C, Correia-S L, et al. In vivo and in silico studies to identify mechanisms associated with Nurr1 modulation following early life exposure to permethrin in rats. Neuroscience. 2017;340: 411–423. 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2016.10.071 - DOI - PubMed
    1. Bordoni L, Nasuti C, Di Stefano A, Marinelli L, Gabbianelli R. Epigenetic Memory of Early-Life Parental Perturbation: Dopamine Decrease and DNA Methylation Changes in Offspring. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2019;19: 1472623 10.1155/2019/1472623 - DOI - PMC - PubMed
    1. Bordoni L, Nasuti C, Fedeli D, Galeazzi R, Laudadio E, Massaccesi L, et al. Early impairment of epigenetic pattern in neurodegeneration: Additional mechanisms behind pyrethroid toxicity. Exp Gerontol. 2019;124: 110629 10.1016/j.exger.2019.06.002 - DOI - PubMed
    1. Nasuti C, Fedeli D, Bordoni L, Montani M, Dus I, Gabbianelli R. Effect of electrolyzed reduced water in an animal model of Parkinson-like disease. In: 2nd European Summer School on Nutrigenomics. September 5–9, 2016, Camerino, Italy: Abstracts. J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics. 2016;9: 16 10.1159/000448866 - DOI

MeSH terms

Grant support

The authors received no specific funding for this work.
Feedback