Validation of the Chinese Version of the Children's ChronoType Questionnaire (CCTQ) in school-aged children

Chronobiol Int. 2019 Dec;36(12):1681-1690. doi: 10.1080/07420528.2019.1673769. Epub 2019 Oct 11.


The Children's ChronoType Questionnaire (CCTQ) is a valid and reliable measure for assessing prepubertal children aged 4-11 years. The CCTQ is a parent-reported, 27-item questionnaire consisting of sleep-wake parameters for scheduled and free days (16 items), a morningness/eveningness scale (M/E, 10 items), and a five-point, single-item, chronotype score. The CCTQ has been translated into different languages, but a Chinese version is not available. In the present study, we aimed to produce a Chinese version of the CCTQ and test its validity and reliability on school-aged children. A total of 555 children aged 7-11 years were recruited from five primary schools. The parents were told to complete the CCTQ and record their child's sleep pattern in a 7-day sleep diary. Sixty-six children and their parents were invited to participate in determining the test-retest reliability of the CCTQ over a 2-week interval, and their sleep patterns were assessed using a sleep diary. The internal consistency of the Chinese CCTQ M/E score as measured by Cronbach's alpha was acceptable (0.74). Regarding the test-retest reliability of the instrument, moderate to strong Spearman's correlation coefficients were found for most of the CCTQ - sleep-wake items (ρ = 0.52-0.86) and for the CCTQ-M/E total score (ρ = 0.78). For the concurrent validity, Spearman's correlations between the sleep-wake parameters of the CCTQ and the sleep diary were moderate to high on both the scheduled days (ρ = 0.54 to 0.87) and free days (ρ = 0.36 to 0.60). For the correlations measured with actigraphs, significant correlations were found in the CCTQ sleep-wake parameters, including bedtime, get-up time, sleep latency, sleep period, time in bed, and mid-sleep point on both the scheduled (ρ = 0.31 to 0.76) and free days (ρ = 0.27 to 0.52), but not in sleep latency and sleep period on free days. The results of the present study suggest that the Chinese version of the CCTQ is a reliable and valid tool for assessing chronotypes in Chinese school-aged children in Hong Kong.

Keywords: Circadian rhythms; Hong Kong Chinese; children; chronotype; school-aged; sleep; validation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Actigraphy
  • Asians
  • Child
  • China
  • Circadian Rhythm*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Sleep
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Time Factors