Background: Midgut neuroendocrine tumor (NET) patients are often diagnosed at advanced stages with extensive mesenteric nodal and hepatic metastasis. The only potentially curative treatment is surgical tumor eradication. Despite an aggressive resection, macro and microscopic residual disease still may remain in the resection bed. We hypothesize that the application of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) within the tumor bed will help eliminate microscopic residual disease.
Methods: Records of 189 patients who underwent extensive cytoreductive surgeries during 2003-2012 for advanced, midgut NETs with extensive mesenteric lymphadenopathy were reviewed. Eighty-six patients (46%) who had 5-FU saturated gel foam strips secured into their mesenteric resection sites served as the study group and a matching 103 patients (54%) who did not have such an intra-operative chemotherapy served as controls. Survival from the time of diagnosis and post-operative complications between the two groups were compared.
Results: Mortality rates at 30, 60 and 90 days post-operatively were 4%, 0%, 0% versus 2%, 0%, 2% for study and control groups, respectively. Major complications (Grades III & IV) at the same intervals were 0, 0, 1 versus 2, 3, 2 for study and control groups, respectively. Median survival was 236 months versus 148 months for the study and control groups, respectively 24 (P=0.15).
Conclusions: Intraoperative tumor resection bed chemotherapy is a safe adjuvant without discernible toxicity. This procedure may provide survival benefits to midgut NET patients with extensive mesenteric lymphadenopathy undergoing extensive cytoreductive surgery. Further study in prospective trials must be conducted to determine definitive benefit to the NET patient.
Keywords: Midgut neuroendocrine tumors (midgut NETs); cytoreduction; debulking surgery; intraoperative chemotherapy.
2019 Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology. All rights reserved.