Diet is a modifiable factor implicated in chronic systemic inflammation, and the mediterranean dietary pattern is considered to be a healthy model in terms of morbidity and mortality. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the adherence to the mediterranean diet in patients with Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA) and its impact on disease activity. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in a cohort of 211 consecutive PsA patients. We evaluated PsA activity by disease activity index for PSoriatic Arthritis (DAPSA) and composite psoriatic disease activity index (CPDAI). The NCEP-ACT III criteria were used to identify subjects with MetS, and in each subject, we evaluated body mass index (BMI). A validated 14-item questionnaire for the assessment of adherence to the mediterranean diet (PREDIMED) was recorded for all the enrolled subjects. Patients showed a median age of 55 (48-62) and disease duration was 76 (36-120) months. 27.01% of patients were classified as having MetS. The median of the mediterranean diet score (MDS) was 7 (6-9). A moderate adherence to mediterranean diet was found in 66.35% of the entire cohort; 15.64% and 18.01% of the patients showed low- and high adherence to the dietary pattern, respectively. We found a negative association between DAPSA and adherence to mediterranean diet (B = - 3.291; 95% CI - 5.884 to - 0.698). DAPSA was positively associated with BMI (B = 0.332; 95% CI 0.047-0.618) and HAQ ( B = 2.176; 95% CI 0.984-3.368). Results from our study evidenced that in PsA patients, higher levels of disease activity as measured by DAPSA correlated with low adherence to mediterranean diet, suggesting potential benefit of antinflammatory properties of this dietary pattern.
Keywords: Body mass index; C-reactive protein; DAPSA; Mediterranean diet; Psoriatic Arthritis.