[The influence of anxiety and depression on asthma control in Ecuadorian patients. A pilot study]

Rev Alerg Mex. Jul-Sep 2019;66(3):292-300. doi: 10.29262/ram.v66i3.571.
[Article in Spanish]

Abstract

Background: The level of asthma control in Latin American countries is still poor and it does not reach the objectives that have been established by international guidelines. The reasons why this occurs are still unknown.

Objective: To explore the frequency of anxiety and depression in patients with asthma and its possible associations with the control of this disease.

Methods: A cross-sectional study in asthmatic patients from Guayaquil-Ecuador. A chi-squared test was applied in order to assess the associations between the presence of anxiety and depression and the demographic variables. The correlation between the Asthma Control Test (ACT) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was assessed by applying Kendall´s Tau-b test.

Results: Of all 73 patients, 55 (80.9%) were women and 50 (69.4%) had a low educational level; 49 (67.1%) patients had uncontrolled asthma (p=.005). Few patients presented anxiety (2.7%) and depression (1.4%) symptoms (p=.000). The factors that were associated with the highest rate of anxiety and depression were: the age of 60 and younger, female sex, and uncontrolled asthma. There wasn't any significant correlation between asthma control and anxiety or depression scores.

Conclusion: Numerous asthmatic patients don't have proper control of their disease, and anxiety or depression disorders seem to have only minor effects on the control of the illness.

Antecedentes: El nivel de control del asma en países latinoamericanos sigue siendo pobre y no alcanza los objetivos establecidos por las guías internacionales. Las razones son desconocidas. Objetivo: Explorar la frecuencia de ansiedad y depresión en los pacientes con asma y sus posibles asociaciones en el control del asma. Métodos: Estudio transversal en pacientes con asma en Guayaquil, Ecuador. Se empleó chi cuadrada para evaluar la asociación entre ansiedad o depresión y las variables demográficas. Se valoró la correlación entre la prueba de control de asma y la escala hospitalaria de ansiedad y depresión mediante tau-b de Kendall. Resultados: De 73 pacientes, 55 (80.9%) eran mujeres y 50 (69.4%) tenían nivel educativo bajo; 49 (67.1%) tuvieron asma no controlada (p = 0.005). Pocos pacientes presentaron síntomas de ansiedad (2.7%) y depresión (1.4%) (p = 0.000). Los factores asociados con mayor proporción de ansiedad y depresión fueron edad ≤ 60 años, sexo femenino y asma no controlada. No hubo correlación significativa entre el control del asma y la puntuación de ansiedad o depresión. Conclusión: Numerosos pacientes asmáticos no tienen control adecuado de su enfermedad y los trastornos de ansiedad o depresión parecen influir poco en el control de la enfermedad.

Keywords: Anxiety; Asthma; Asthma control; Depression.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Anxiety / complications*
  • Anxiety / epidemiology
  • Asthma / complications*
  • Asthma / prevention & control*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Depression / complications*
  • Depression / epidemiology
  • Ecuador / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pilot Projects