Peanut allergy among Mexican adults with allergic respiratory diseases: prevalence and clinical manifestations

Rev Alerg Mex. Jul-Sep 2019;66(3):314-321. doi: 10.29262/ram.v66i3.619.

Abstract

Background: Peanut allergy among adults with respiratory diseases has seldom been studied within Mexico.

Objective: To establish the prevalence of peanut allergy among adults that have been diagnosed with either asthma or allergic rhinitis; we will also be describing the symptoms that are associated with peanut allergy.

Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study through which we analyzed the corresponding data of 257 patients with allergic respiratory diseases, asthma or allergic rhinitis, all participants were 16 years of age or older, and were recruited in a consecutive manner. Peanut allergy was established by testing positive to a peanut skin-prick test; we also conducted a standard interview with each patient.

Results: From our sample of 257 patients, 18 tested positive to peanut sensitization, (7.0%; 95% CI = 3.9% to 10.1%); among these 18 participants, 7 were considered to be allergic to peanuts (2.7%; 95% IC: 0.7% to 4.7%). Predominant symptoms were oral, primarily affecting the pharynx and the palate, followed by swelling of the lips. When it came to respiratory discomfort, sneezing and rhinorrhea stood out, and lastly there were cutaneous symptoms. We did not detect any systemic reactions to the peanut.

Conclusion: In our study, peanut allergy among adults with allergic respiratory diseases is not an uncommon occurrence.

Antecedentes: La alergia al cacahuate en adultos con enfermedades respiratorias alérgicas pocas veces ha sido estudiada en México. Objetivo: Establecer la prevalencia de alergia al cacahuate en un grupo de adultos con asma o rinitis alérgica; también se describen los síntomas asociados con la alergia al cacahuate. Métodos: Se realizó estudio transversal en el que analizaron los datos correspondientes a 257 pacientes con enfermedades respiratorias alérgicas, asma o rinitis alérgica, con edad igual o mayor a 16 años; los pacientes fueron reclutados consecutivamente. La alergia al cacahuate se determinó por una prueba cutánea positiva al cacahuate y a través de una entrevista estandarizada. Se estimaron intervalos de confianza (IC) a 95 % para proporciones. Resultados: De los pacientes incluidos, 18 estuvieron sensibilizados al cacahuate (7.0 %, IC 95 % = 4.4-10.9), siete de ellos fueron considerados alérgicos al cacahuate, para una prevalencia de 2.7% (IC 95%: 1.2% - 5.6%). En los pacientes con alergia al cacahuate, los síntomas predominantes fueron los orales, principalmente el prurito en la faringe y en el paladar, seguidos de edema de los labios; entre las molestias respiratorias sobresalieron los estornudos y la rinorrea y, al final, los síntomas cutáneos. No se documentaron reacciones sistémicas al cacahuate. Conclusión: En nuestro estudio, la alergia al cacahuate en adultos con enfermedades respiratorias alérgicas no fue infrecuente.

Keywords: Adults; Peanut allergy; Sensitization.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Asthma / complications
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mexico / epidemiology
  • Middle Aged
  • Peanut Hypersensitivity / complications
  • Peanut Hypersensitivity / diagnosis*
  • Peanut Hypersensitivity / epidemiology*
  • Prevalence
  • Rhinitis, Allergic / complications
  • Young Adult