Evaluation and management of amenorrhea related to congenital sex hormonal disorders

Ann Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2019 Sep;24(3):149-157. doi: 10.6065/apem.2019.24.3.149. Epub 2019 Sep 30.


Primary amenorrhea is a symptom with a substantial list of underlying etiologies which presents in adolescence, although some conditions are diagnosed in childhood. Primary amenorrhea is defined as not having menarche until 15 years of age (or 13 years with secondary sex characteristics). Various etiologies of primary amenorrhea include outflow tract obstructions, gonadal dysgenesis, abnormalities of the central nervous system, various endocrine diseases, chronic illnesses, psychologic problems, and constitutional delay of puberty. The management of primary amenorrhea may vary considerably depending on the patient and the specific diagnosis. In this article, the various causes, evaluation, and management of primary amenorrhea are reviewed with special emphasis on congenital sex hormonal disorders.

Keywords: Adolescent; Evaluation; Management; Primary amenorrhea.