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, 24 (3), 308-312

Efficacy of Moringa oleifera Leaf Extracts Against Cariogenic Biofilm

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Efficacy of Moringa oleifera Leaf Extracts Against Cariogenic Biofilm

Su-Kyung Jwa. Prev Nutr Food Sci.

Abstract

Moringa oleifera leaves are beneficial for human health. Dental caries is closely related with cariogenic biofilm, which is an oral biofilm containing a high proportion of Streptococcus mutans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effects of the M. oleifera leaf extracts on S. mutans and formation of cariogenic biofilm. Extract from M. oleifera leaves was derived using distilled water (DW) and ethyl alcohol (EtOH). S. mutans susceptibility assays were performed for each extract. Cariogenic biofilm was formed with or without DW and EtOH extract, and cariogenic biofilm was treated with both extracts. The biofilm was observed by confocal laser microscopy, and the bacteria in the biofilm were counted. Both extracts showed antimicrobial activity against S. mutans and inhibited formation of cariogenic biofilm. The EtOH extracts exhibited anti-biofilm activity. M. oleifera leaves may be potential candidates to prevent dental caries.

Keywords: Moringa oleifera; antimicrobial activity; leaf extract; oral biofilm.

Conflict of interest statement

AUTHOR DISCLOSURE STATEMENT The author declares no conflict of interest.

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
The antimicrobial activity of extract from Moringa oleifera leaves. Streptococcus mutans was cultured with or without distilled water (DW) and ethanol (EtOH) extracts, and the growth of S. mutans was measured using spectrophotometer at 660 nm wavelength. Asterisks (*) represent statistically significant differences compared with the control group (P <0.05). DW, distilled water; EtOH, ethanol.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
Effect of extract on cariogenic biofilm. In the first experiment, cariogenic biofilm was formed with or without the Moringa oleifera leaf extracts at non-lethal concentration (A~C). In the second experiment, cariogenic biofilm was treated with extracts and 70% ethanol (D~F). The biofilm was observed by confocal laser scanning microscope after treatment with the live/dead staining kit. Green and red colors indicate live and dead bacteria, respectively. DW, distilled water; EtOH, ethanol.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3
Inhibition of cariogenic biofilm formation by Moringa oleifera leaf extracts. Cariogenic biofilm was formed with or without the at a non-lethal concentration, and was disrupted with a scraper. The bacteria in the biofilm were resuspended in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth and spread on mitis salivarius-bacitracin and BHI agar plates to count Streptococcus mutans and total bacteria, respectively. Asterisks (*) represent statistically significant differences compared with the control group (P <0.05). CFU, colony-forming unit; DW, distilled water; EtOH, ethanol.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4
Anti-biofilm effects of Moringa oleifera leaf extracts on cariogenic biofilm. Cariogenic biofilm was formed and treated with extracts for 10 min, and the biofilm was disrupted with a scraper. The bacteria in the biofilm were resuspended with brain heart infusion (BHI) broth and spread on mitis salivarius-bacitracin and BHI agar plate to count Streptococcus mutans and total bacteria, respectively. Asterisks (*) represent statistically significant differences compared with the control group (P <0.05). CFU, colony-forming unit; DW, distilled water; EtOH, ethanol.

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