Adipose tissue concentrations of non-persistent environmental phenols and local redox balance in adults from Southern Spain

Environ Int. 2019 Dec;133(Pt A):105118. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2019.105118. Epub 2019 Oct 11.


The aim was to evaluate the associations of environmental phenol and paraben concentrations with the oxidative microenvironment in adipose tissue. This study was conducted in a subsample (n = 144) of the GraMo cohort (Southern Spain). Concentrations of 9 phenols and 7 parabens, and levels of oxidative stress biomarkers were quantified in adipose tissue. Associations were estimated using multivariable linear regression analyses adjusted for potential confounders. Benzophenone-3 (BP-3) concentration was borderline associated with enhanced glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity [exp(β) = 1.20, p = 0.060] and decreased levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) [exp(β) = 0.55, p = 0.070]. Concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA) and methylparaben (MeP) were associated to lower glutathione reductase (GRd) activity [exp(β) = 0.83, exp(β) = 0.72, respectively], and BPA was borderline associated to increased levels of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) [exp(β) = 1.73, p-value = 0.062]. MeP was inversely associated to both hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) and superoxide dismustase (SOD) activity, as well as to the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) [0.75 < exp(β) < 0.79]. Our results suggest that some specific non-persistent pollutants may be associated with a disruption of the activity of relevant antioxidant enzymes, in addition to the depletion of the glutathione stock. They might act as a tissue-specific source of free radicals, contributing to the oxidative microenvironment in the adipose tissue.

Keywords: Adipose tissue; Environmental phenols; Oxidative stress; Parabens.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adipose Tissue / metabolism*
  • Adult
  • Antioxidants / metabolism
  • Benzhydryl Compounds / metabolism
  • Benzophenones / metabolism
  • Biomarkers / metabolism
  • Cohort Studies
  • Environmental Pollutants / metabolism*
  • Female
  • Free Radicals / metabolism
  • Glutathione / metabolism
  • Glutathione Peroxidase
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Parabens / metabolism
  • Phenols / metabolism*
  • Spain
  • Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances


  • Antioxidants
  • Benzhydryl Compounds
  • Benzophenones
  • Biomarkers
  • Environmental Pollutants
  • Free Radicals
  • Parabens
  • Phenols
  • Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances
  • oxybenzone
  • methylparaben
  • Glutathione Peroxidase
  • Glutathione
  • bisphenol A