Randomized-controlled trial of a modified Mediterranean dietary program for multiple sclerosis: A pilot study

Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2019 Nov;36:101403. doi: 10.1016/j.msard.2019.101403. Epub 2019 Sep 24.

Abstract

Background: There is a high level of interest in the potential role of diet among the MS community. There is a limited level of evidence for a Mediterranean-style dietary pattern in MS; the feasibility of conducting studies using educational tools to deliver this type of intervention and study its effects is unknown.

Objectives: To establish clinical trial feasibility for future studies utilizing educational delivery of a dietary intervention in MS; to explore the effects of a modified Mediterranean dietary intervention in MS.

Methods: We randomly assigned women with MS to follow/not follow the prescribed modified Mediterranean dietary intervention for 6 months, delivered through educational sessions. The diet encouraged the intake of fish and other foods high in poly- and monounsaturated fats, fresh fruits, vegetables, and whole grains and eliminated meat, dairy, and most processed foods and limited salt intake to <2 g/day. Primary endpoints related to meeting target enrollment within the specified time frame, adherence, and study completion. Clinical endpoints were evaluated in an exploratory fashion.

Results: We screened 128 potential participants and enrolled 36 within 9 months, surpassing target enrollment of 30 participants at a single center in 1 year. Self-reported adherence was excellent (90.3%), with an overall study completion rate of 94.4%. The intervention group exhibited a statistically significant decline in the trajectory of Neurological Fatigue Index-MS scores (p = 0.01), a trend toward reduced Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale-29 scores that became significant after outlier removal (p = 0.12; p = 0.023), and a reduction in Expanded Disability Status Scale (p = 0.01) over time as compared to the non-intervention group.

Conclusions: It is reasonable to expect a high level of interest and commitment to this type of dietary intervention study in MS, and feasible to deliver it purely through education in a clinical setting with high adherence levels despite restrictive requirements. In this pilot study, a modified Mediterranean dietary intervention reduced fatigue, impact of MS symptoms, and disability. Further work is needed.

Keywords: Clinical trial; Diet; Fatigue; Mediterranean; Multiple sclerosis.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Diet, Mediterranean*
  • Feasibility Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Multiple Sclerosis / diet therapy*
  • Outcome Assessment, Health Care
  • Pilot Projects
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Young Adult