Purpose: Present the research performed to identify and describe habits of effective pharmacy preceptors and provide a framework for targeted preceptor assessment and development.
Methods: A 5-round Delphi consensus-building process was used to refine the initial Habits of Preceptors Rubric (HOP-R) developed by the research team. Twenty experts in pharmacy experiential education participated. During the Delphi process, feedback and agreement on all parts of the HOP-R were sought, including the premise, introductory content, framework, preceptor domains, habits, habit level descriptions, and continuous professional development (CPD) plan. After each Delphi round, the research team grouped responses into themes and modified the draft rubric accordingly. These themes were used to frame the response document sent to the expert panel for the following Delphi round; this document explained modifications made to the HOP-R. Consensus was defined as a mean score of ≥3.25 on a 4-point scale (4 = strongly agree, 1 = strongly disagree) for posed statements or ≥70% agreement for ranked items.
Results: In the final Delphi round (response rate, 95%), consensus was achieved for all HOP-R individual structural and content elements except the habit level descriptors, for which a secondary rank order analysis was performed. The final HOP-R has 3 domains encompassing 11 preceptor habits that can be displayed across 4 habit levels progressing from developing to master.
Conclusion: The HOP-R was developed to assess, quantify, and demonstrate growth across a wide variety of pharmacy preceptor habits. Potential utility includes use as a framework to articulate the knowledge, skills, and behaviors of effective preceptors, facilitate the creation of individualized CPD plans, and assess the impact of participation in teaching and learning curricula.
Keywords: experiential learning; habits; pharmacy education; preceptor assessment; preceptor development; rubric.
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