Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common sleep disorder. Sleep bruxism (SB) is a masticatory muscle activity during sleep that commonly co-occurs with OSA. The presented study aimed to assess this relationship and to identify factors affecting this co-occurrence. Adult patients (n = 110) were evaluated for OSA and SB in a sleep laboratory using polysomnography. The episodes of bruxism and respiratory events were scored according to the standards of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. The prevalence of OSA and SB was found to be 86.37% and 50%, respectively. The bruxism episode index (BEI) was increased in the group with mild and moderate OSA (apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) <30) compared to that in the group with severe OSA (AHI ≥ 30) (5.50 ± 4.58 vs. 1.62 ± 1.28, p < 0.05). A positive correlation between AHI and BEI was observed in the group with AHI < 30. Regression analysis indicated that higher AHI, male gender, and diabetes were independent predictors for the increased BEI in group with AHI < 30. The relationship between OSA and SB depends on the degree of severity of OSA. OSA is correlated with SB in mild and moderate cases of OSA in the group of patients with increased risk of OSA.
Keywords: diabetes; obstructive sleep apnea; polysomnography; sleep bruxism.