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Bacteria, Fungi and Archaea Domains in Rhizospheric Soil and Their Effects in Enhancing Agricultural Productivity

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Bacteria, Fungi and Archaea Domains in Rhizospheric Soil and Their Effects in Enhancing Agricultural Productivity

Kehinde Abraham Odelade et al. Int J Environ Res Public Health.

Abstract

The persistent and undiscriminating application of chemicals as means to improve crop growth, development and yields for several years has become problematic to agricultural sustainability because of the adverse effects these chemicals have on the produce, consumers and beneficial microbes in the ecosystem. Therefore, for agricultural productivity to be sustained there are needs for better and suitable preferences which would be friendly to the ecosystem. The use of microbial metabolites has become an attractive and more feasible preference because they are versatile, degradable and ecofriendly, unlike chemicals. In order to achieve this aim, it is then imperative to explore microbes that are very close to the root of a plant, especially where they are more concentrated and have efficient activities called the rhizosphere. Extensive varieties of bacteria, archaea, fungi and other microbes are found inhabiting the rhizosphere with various interactions with the plant host. Therefore, this review explores various beneficial microbes such as bacteria, fungi and archaea and their roles in the environment in terms of acquisition of nutrients for plants for the purposes of plant growth and health. It also discusses the effect of root exudate on the rhizosphere microbiome and compares the three domains at molecular levels.

Keywords: enhance plant growth; host plant growth; improve crop productions and suitable eco-friendly options; rhizosphere microbiome.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
A typical diagram of a plant root representing the six main zones of rhizodeposits. (1) Lysis of lid and marginal cells, (2) lysis of complex and impenetrable mucilage, (3) lysis of simple and penetrable root exudates, (4) lysis of volatile organic compounds, (5) lysis of carbon to mutualists and (6) lysis of carbon due to root epidermal and cortical cell death.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Phylogenetic tree showing diversity for each of the three domains of life. The bacterial domain is blue, eukaryal domain is red, while the archaeal domain is green [56].

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