Graphene Oxide Enhances Chitosan-Based 3D Scaffold Properties for Bone Tissue Engineering

Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Oct 13;20(20):5077. doi: 10.3390/ijms20205077.


The main goal of bone tissue engineering (BTE) is to refine and repair major bone defects based on bioactive biomaterials with distinct properties that can induce and support bone tissue formation. Graphene and its derivatives, such as graphene oxide (GO), display optimal properties for BTE, being able to support cell growth and proliferation, cell attachment, and cytoskeleton development as well as the activation of osteogenesis and bone development pathways. Conversely, the presence of GO within a polymer matrix produces favorable changes to scaffold morphologies that facilitate cell attachment and migration i.e., more ordered morphologies, greater surface area, and higher total porosity. Therefore, there is a need to explore the potential of GO for tissue engineering applications and regenerative medicine. Here, we aim to promote one novel scaffold based on a natural compound of chitosan, improved with 3 wt.% GO, for BTE approaches, considering its good biocompatibility, remarkable 3D characteristics, and ability to support stem cell differentiation processes towards the bone lineage.

Keywords: biocompatibility; bone tissue engineering; graphene oxide; human adipose-derived stem cells; osteogenesis.

MeSH terms

  • Adult Stem Cells / cytology
  • Biocompatible Materials / chemistry
  • Bone Regeneration
  • Bone and Bones / cytology*
  • Bone and Bones / ultrastructure
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Chitosan / chemistry*
  • Graphite / chemistry*
  • Humans
  • Materials Testing
  • Molecular Conformation
  • Osteocytes / cytology
  • Osteocytes / ultrastructure
  • Osteogenesis*
  • Porosity
  • Tissue Engineering / methods*
  • Tissue Scaffolds*


  • Biocompatible Materials
  • graphene oxide
  • Graphite
  • Chitosan