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A Review of the Potential Benefits of Increasing Vitamin D Status in Mongolian Adults Through Food Fortification and Vitamin D Supplementation


A Review of the Potential Benefits of Increasing Vitamin D Status in Mongolian Adults Through Food Fortification and Vitamin D Supplementation

William B Grant et al. Nutrients.


Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations are low in Mongolia, averaging 22 ng/mL in summer and only 8 ng/mL in winter. Mongolians have high incidence and/or prevalence of several diseases linked to low 25(OH)D concentrations, including ischemic heart disease, malignant neoplasms, cirrhosis of the liver, ischemic stroke, lower respiratory tract infections, preterm birth complications, and diabetes mellitus. Fortifying regularly consumed foods such as flour, milk, and edible oils with vitamin D3 could raise 25(OH)D concentrations by about 10 ng/mL. However, to achieve 25(OH)D concentrations of 30-40 ng/mL in adults, vitamin D intakes of 1000 to 4000 IU/day would be required, making personal supplement use necessary. On the basis of prospective observational studies and clinical trials of disease incidence or known mortality rates and adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes, raising mean serum 25(OH)D concentrations to 40 ng/mL would likely reduce incidence and mortality rates for those and other diseases, reduce the rate of adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes, and increase mean life expectancy by one year or more.

Keywords: 25-hydroxyvitamin D; cancer; cirrhosis; ischemic stroke; lower respiratory tract infections; neoplasms; pregnancy; preterm birth; vitamin D deficiency; vitamin D fortification; vitamin D supplementation.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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