TET2 Regulates the Neuroinflammatory Response in Microglia

Cell Rep. 2019 Oct 15;29(3):697-713.e8. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2019.09.013.

Abstract

Epigenomic mechanisms regulate distinct aspects of the inflammatory response in immune cells. Despite the central role for microglia in neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration, little is known about their epigenomic regulation of the inflammatory response. Here, we show that Ten-eleven translocation 2 (TET2) methylcytosine dioxygenase expression is increased in microglia upon stimulation with various inflammogens through a NF-κB-dependent pathway. We found that TET2 regulates early gene transcriptional changes, leading to early metabolic alterations, as well as a later inflammatory response independently of its enzymatic activity. We further show that TET2 regulates the proinflammatory response in microglia of mice intraperitoneally injected with LPS. We observed that microglia associated with amyloid β plaques expressed TET2 in brain tissue from individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in 5xFAD mice. Collectively, our findings show that TET2 plays an important role in the microglial inflammatory response and suggest TET2 as a potential target to combat neurodegenerative brain disorders.

Keywords: TET2; TLR-4; epigenetics; metabolism; microglia; neuroinflammation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alzheimer Disease / metabolism
  • Alzheimer Disease / pathology
  • Alzheimer Disease / veterinary
  • Amyloid / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Brain / metabolism
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism*
  • Enhancer Elements, Genetic
  • Humans
  • Interleukin-6 / metabolism
  • Lipopolysaccharides / pharmacology
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Microglia / cytology
  • Microglia / metabolism*
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / genetics
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / metabolism
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism*
  • RNA Interference
  • RNA, Small Interfering / metabolism
  • Rats
  • Transcription Factor RelA / metabolism
  • Transcription, Genetic / drug effects

Substances

  • Amyloid
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Interleukin-6
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • RNA, Small Interfering
  • Tet2 protein, mouse
  • Transcription Factor RelA
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II