Bedtime Procrastination, Sleep-Related Behaviors, and Demographic Factors in an Online Survey on a Polish Sample

Front Neurosci. 2019 Sep 18:13:963. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2019.00963. eCollection 2019.


The sufficient length and good quality of night sleep play a vital role in maintaining health, well-being and effective functioning. Nevertheless, an increase in the prevalence of sleep deprivation can be observed recently. The concept of bedtime procrastination, defined as going to bed later than intended, has been proposed to explain one of the psychological determinants of sleep deficiency. To investigate the prevalence of bedtime procrastination among Poles we carried out a Polish adaptation of the Bedtime Procrastination Scale (BPS), a self-report questionnaire for measuring the tendency to voluntarily postpone going to bed in the absence of any external circumstances for doing so. The aim of the research was to determine the main psychometric properties of the Polish version of the BPS. We also aimed to identify the relationships between bedtime procrastination and selected demographic variables in the Polish sample, and to examine the impact of bedtime procrastination on self-reported sleep outcomes. The data obtained from online surveys conducted on two Polish samples were analyzed, including demographic factors, self-reported sleep outcomes, and responses to items of the BPS. The Polish version of the BPS has a unifactorial structure like the original version. It also exhibits satisfactory internal consistency and moderate temporal stability in a 10-week retest study. BPS scores were not significantly related to the place of residence, the highest completed level of education, living with a spouse or partner, and living with children. Scores in BPS slightly decreased with age and females scored higher on BPS than males. Higher BPS scores were obtained for a group of students in comparison to a group of subjects who were not students, and lower BPS scores were found in working respondents in comparison to respondents who were not working. BPS scores correlate negatively with sleep length on workdays and a feeling of sleep sufficiency, and positively with sleep length on weekdays relative to workdays, sleeping later than one would like, and a feeling of fatigue. Several relationships between self-reported sleep outcomes and demographic variables were also identified.

Keywords: bedtime procrastination; demographic factors; gender differences; health behaviors; intention-behavior gap; sleep insufficiency; sleep outcomes; students.