Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
Review
, 10, 1117
eCollection

Recognition of Elicitors in Grapevine: From MAMP and DAMP Perception to Induced Resistance

Affiliations
Review

Recognition of Elicitors in Grapevine: From MAMP and DAMP Perception to Induced Resistance

Marie-Claire Héloir et al. Front Plant Sci.

Abstract

In a context of a sustainable viticulture, the implementation of innovative eco-friendly strategies, such as elicitor-triggered immunity, requires a deep knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying grapevine defense activation, from pathogen perception to resistance induction. During plant-pathogen interaction, the first step of plant defense activation is ensured by the recognition of microbe-associated molecular patterns, which are elicitors directly derived from pathogenic or beneficial microbes. Vitis vinifera, like other plants, can perceive elicitors of different nature, including proteins, amphiphilic glycolipid, and lipopeptide molecules as well as polysaccharides, thanks to their cognate pattern recognition receptors, the discovery of which recently began in this plant species. Furthermore, damage-associated molecular patterns are another class of elicitors perceived by V. vinifera as an invader's hallmark. They are mainly polysaccharides derived from the plant cell wall and are generally released through the activity of cell wall-degrading enzymes secreted by microbes. Elicitor perception and subsequent activation of grapevine immunity end in some cases in efficient grapevine resistance against pathogens. Using complementary approaches, several molecular markers have been identified as hallmarks of this induced resistance stage. This review thus focuses on the recognition of elicitors by Vitis vinifera describing the molecular mechanisms triggered from the elicitor perception to the activation of immune responses. Finally, we discuss the fact that the link between elicitation and induced resistance is not so obvious and that the formulation of resistance inducers remains a key step before their application in vineyards.

Keywords: Damage-Associated Molecular Pattern (DAMP); Induced Resistance (IR); Microbe-Associated Molecular Pattern (MAMP); Pattern Recognition Receptor (PRR); Vitis vinifera; defense responses; innate immunity.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Microbe- and damage-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs, DAMPs) recognized by grapevine or Arabidopsis pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which trigger plant immunity. BAK1, brassinosteroid-insensitive 1 (BRI1)–associated receptor kinase 1; BcPG, B. cinerea polygalacturonase; CERK1, chitin elicitor receptor kinase 1; EGF, epidermal growth factor; FLS2, flagellin sensing 2; LORE, Lipooligosaccharide-specific reduced elicitation; LPS, lipopolysaccharide; LYK, lysin motif-containing receptor-like kinase; OGs, oligogalacturonides; RBPG1, responsiveness to botrytis polygalacturonases 1; SOBIR1, suppressor of BIR1; WAK1, wall-associated kinase1.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Desensitization experiments can differentiate MAMPs/DAMPs perceived by independent or common receptors in grapevine. (A) Desensitization experiments reveals that BcPG1 and OGs are perceived differently by grapevine cells as the H2O2 production is abolished after two successive treatments with OG (pink) but not when BcPG1 (cyan) succeeds to a first treatment with OGs (black). Cells were first treated at time 0 with OGs (200 µg/ml; black), washed three times between 30 and 45 min with fresh medium, then treated a second time with OGs (200 µg/ml; pink), BcPG1 (0.2 µg/ml; cyan), or water (black). H2O2 production was determined using chemiluminescence of luminol as described by Poinssot et al. (2003). (B) Refractory state experiments revealed that the two β-glucan derivatives (PS3 and Lam) might be perceived by the same receptor in grapevine cells as a first treatment with PS3 abolishes the oxidative burst normally elicited by laminarin. Cells were first treated at time 0 with water (black), laminarin (Lam, 4 mg/ml; green), or PS3 (4 mg/ml; red); washed three times between 90 and 120 min with fresh medium; and then treated a second time with laminarin (4 mg/ml). H2O2 production was determined using chemiluminescence of luminol as described by Gauthier et al. (2014). Data are means ± SE of duplicates, representative of three independent experiments. FWC, fresh weight of cells.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Effect of different factors influencing grapevine induced resistance in vineyards.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

References

    1. Adrian M., Trouvelot S., Gamm M., Poinssot B., Héloir M. C., Daire X., (2012). “Activation of grapevine defense mechanisms: theoretical and applied approaches,” in Progress in biological control, plant defence: biological control, vol. 12 Ed. Ramawat J. M. K., editor. (Dordrecht: Springer; ), 313–331. 10.1007/978-94-007-1933-0_13 - DOI
    1. Ait Barka E., Belarbi A., Hachet C., Nowak J., Audran J. (2000). Enhancement of in vitro growth and resistance to gray mould of Vitis vinifera co-cultured with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 186, 91–95. 10.1111/j.1574-6968.2000.tb09087.x - DOI - PubMed
    1. Ait Barka E., Nowak J., Clement C. (2006). Enhancement of chilling resistance of inoculated grapevine plantlets with a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium, Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72, 7246–7252. 10.1128/AEM.01047-06 - DOI - PMC - PubMed
    1. Alexandrova M., Bazzi C., Holst O. (2000). Protective effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharides in the grapevine-Agrobacterium vitis interaction. Vitis 39, 67–70.
    1. Aziz A., Gauthier A., Bezler A., Poinssot B., Joubert J. M., Pugin A., et al. (2007). Elicitor and resistance-inducing activities of beta-1,4 cellodextrins in grapevine, comparison with beta-1,3 glucans and alpha-1,4 oligogalacturonides. J. Exp. Bot. 58, 1463–1472. 10.1093/jxb/erm008 - DOI - PubMed

LinkOut - more resources

Feedback