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Review
, 10 (3), e2
eCollection

Molecular and Cellular Aspects of Socket Healing in the Absence and Presence of Graft Materials and Autologous Platelet Concentrates: A Focused Review

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Review

Molecular and Cellular Aspects of Socket Healing in the Absence and Presence of Graft Materials and Autologous Platelet Concentrates: A Focused Review

Pedro de Sousa Gomes et al. J Oral Maxillofac Res.

Abstract

Objectives: The present manuscript aims to critically detail the physiologic process of socket healing, in the absence or presence of grafting materials or platelet concentrates, addressing the associated molecular and cellular events that culminate in the restoration of the lost tissue architecture and functionality.

Material and methods: An electronic search in the National Library of Medicine database MEDLINE through its online site PubMed and Web of Science from inception until May 2019 was conducted to identify articles concerning physiologic process of socket healing, in the absence or presence of grafting materials or platelet concentrates. The search was restricted to English language articles without time restriction. Additionally, a hand search was carried out in oral surgery, periodontology and dental implants related journals.

Results: In total, 122 literature sources were obtained and reviewed. The detailed biological events, at the molecular and cellular level, that occur in the alveolus after tooth extraction and socket healing process modulated by grafting materials or autologous platelet concentrates were presented as two entities.

Conclusions: Tooth extraction initiates a convoluted set of orderly biological events in the alveolus, aiming wound closure and socket healing. The healing process comprises a wide range of events, regulated by the interplay of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors that determine cellular recruitment, proliferation and differentiation in the healing milieu, in a space- and time-dependent choreographic interplay. Additionally, the healing process may further be modulated by the implantation of grafting materials or autologous platelet concentrates within the tooth socket, aiming to enhance the regenerative outcome.

Keywords: alveolar bone grafting; bone remodeling; platelet-rich fibrin; platelet-rich plasma; tooth extraction; tooth socket.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Biological events occurring in the socket after tooth extraction described into a sequence of four time-dependent phases.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Flowchart of article selection procedure.

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