DNA Laddering to Evaluate Cytogenetic Damage in Patients With Periodontitis

J Int Soc Prev Community Dent. 2019 Sep 30;9(5):486-491. doi: 10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_245_19. eCollection Sep-Oct 2019.


Background: Inflammatory conditions show cytogenetic damage in peripheral blood leukocytes and this can be assessed using various tests. Cytogenetic damage as observed in the peripheral blood cells, is a marker of periodontal disease. DNA laddering is a sensitive assay which evaluates the cytogenetic damage. DNA laddering is a feature that can be observed when DNA fragments, resulting from apoptotic DNA fragmentation, are visualised after separation by gel electrophoresis which results in a characteristic "ladder" pattern.

Aim: The aim of the present study is to investigate the cytogenetic damage in different forms of periodontitis in comparison with healthy controls.

Materials and methods: In this cross-sectional study, 15 systemically healthy subjects with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis (CGP), 15 systemically healthy subjects with generalised aggressive periodontitis(GAP) and 15 systemically healthy control subjects were recruited. Blood samples of the patients were drawn and evaluated for the cytogenetic damage by DNA laddering.

Results: Apoptotic DNA fragmentation was observed as a "ladder" pattern at 180-200 BP intervals in both CGP and GAP groups indicating the DNA damage, in contrast with the healthy group where the ladder pattern was not observed suggesting of the healthy DNA.

Conclusion: The results indicated that there are cytogenetic damages in both the chronic and aggressive periodontitis groups incontrast to the healthy controls.

Keywords: Cytogenic damage; DNA laddering; periodontitis.