Prevalence and Severity of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization, Maternal Education, and Dental Caries: A Cross-Sectional Study of Mexican Schoolchildren with Low Socioeconomic Status

J Int Soc Prev Community Dent. 2019 Sep 30;9(5):513-521. doi: 10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_130_19. eCollection Sep-Oct 2019.

Abstract

Objectives: The aims of this study were to identify the prevalence of molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) in a group of low-income schoolchildren and to evaluate the role of maternal education on MIH and dental caries in these children.

Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 686 schoolchildren. To evaluate dental caries, the International Caries Dental Assessment System II (ICDAS) criteria were utilized. MIH was assessed by using the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry criteria. Mixed-effects models were applied for the data analysis.

Results: The prevalence of MIH was 35.4% (244). Most children exhibited moderate MIH (163, 67.1%), followed by mild MIH (45, 18.5%) and severe MIH (35, 14.4%). Caries presence in the first permanent molars, evaluated using ICDAS score, indicated that the mean number of noncavitated and cavitated lesions (ICDAS ≥2) was 0.90 (±0.30); the mean number of lesions with ICDAS ≥3 was 0.36 (±0.48). Odds ratio (OR) analysis of MIH severity revealed that the children of mothers with low education were more likely to exhibit MIH (OR 2.13; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25-3.85). Modeling of dental caries (ICDAS ≥3) revealed that low maternal education (OR 2.27; 95% CI: 1.25-4.16) and the presence of MIH (OR 4.37; 95% CI: 3.05-6.25) were associated with dental caries.

Conclusions: There were associations between low maternal education and both MIH and dental caries. The presence of both initial and cavitated caries lesions was associated with MIH. Dentists should offer adequate advice to mothers with children with MIH, based on their educational background.

Keywords: dental caries; maternal education; molar–incisor hypomineralization; oral hygiene.