Predictors of micronutrient powder (MNP) knowledge, coverage, and consumption during the scale-up of an integrated infant and young child feeding (IYCF-MNP) programme in Nepal

Matern Child Nutr. 2019 Oct;15(S5):e12712. doi: 10.1111/mcn.12712.


Large-scale programmes using micronutrient powders (MNPs) may not achieve maximum impact due to limited/inappropriate MNP coverage, consumption, and use. We identify predictors of MNP coverage, maternal knowledge of appropriate use, and child MNP consumption in Nepal. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2,578 mother-child pairs representative of children 6-23 months in two districts that were part of the post-pilot, scale-up of an integrated infant and young child feeding-MNP (IYCF-MNP) programme. Children aged 6-23 months were expected to receive 60 MNP sachets every 6 months from a female community health volunteer (FCHV) or health centre. Outcomes of interest were MNP coverage (ever received), maternal knowledge of appropriate use (correct response to seven questions), repeat coverage (receipt ≥ twice; among children 12-23 months who had received MNP at least once, n = 1342), and high intake (child consumed ≥75% of last distribution, excluding those with recent receipt/insufficient time to use 75% at recommended one-sachet-per-day dose, n = 1422). Multivariable log-binomial regression models were used to identify predictors of the four outcomes. Coverage, knowledge of appropriate use, and repeat coverage were 61.3%, 33.5%, and 45.9%, respectively. Among MNP receivers, 97.9% consumed MNP at least once and 38.9% of eligible children consumed ≥75% of last distribution. FCHV IYCF-MNP counselling was positively associated with knowledge, coverage, repeat coverage, and high intake; health worker counselling with knowledge and coverage indicators; and radio messages with coverage indicators only. FCHV counselling had the strongest association with knowledge, coverage, and high intake. Community-based counselling may play a vital role in improving coverage and intake in MNP programmes.

Keywords: adherence; anaemia; coverage; implementation; infant and young child feeding (IYCF); micronutrient powders (MNP).

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Dietary Supplements*
  • Female
  • Food, Fortified / statistics & numerical data*
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena*
  • Male
  • Micronutrients / administration & dosage*
  • Mothers
  • Nepal
  • Powders
  • Program Evaluation / statistics & numerical data*


  • Micronutrients
  • Powders