Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common type of arrhythmia. Abnormal atrial myocyte Ca2+ handling promotes aberrant membrane excitability and remodeling that are important for atrial arrhythmogenesis. The sequence of molecular events leading to loss of normal atrial myocyte Ca2+ homeostasis is not established. Late Na+ current (INa,L) is increased in atrial myocytes from AF patients together with an increase in activity of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII).
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation at Ser571 on NaV1.5 increases atrial INa,L, leading to aberrant atrial Ca2+ cycling, altered electrophysiology, and increased AF risk.
Methods: Atrial myocyte electrophysiology, Ca2+ handling, and arrhythmia susceptibility were studied in wild-type and Scn5a knock-in mice expressing phosphomimetic (S571E) or phosphoresistant (S571A) NaV1.5 at Ser571.
Results: Atrial myocytes from S571E but not S571A mice displayed an increase in INa,L and action potential duration, and with adrenergic stress have increased delayed afterdepolarizations. Frequency of Ca2+ sparks and waves was increased in S571E atrial myocytes compared to wild type. S571E mice showed an increase in atrial events induced by adrenergic stress and AF inducibility in vivo. Isolated S571E atria were more susceptible to spontaneous atrial events, which were abrogated by inhibiting sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release, CaMKII, or the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. Expression of phospho-NaV1.5 at Ser571 and autophosphorylated CaMKII were increased in atrial samples from human AF patients.
Conclusion: This study identified CaMKII-dependent regulation of NaV1.5 as an important upstream event in Ca2+ handling defects and abnormal impulse generation in the setting of AF.
Keywords: Arrhythmia; Atrial fibrillation; Calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II; Late sodium current; Type 2 ryanodine receptor.
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