The growing prevalence of obesity has become an important problem worldwide as obesity has several health risks. Notably, factors such as excessive food consumption, a sedentary way of life, high sugar consumption, a fat-rich diet, and a certain genetic profile may lead to obesity. The present review brings together recent advances regarding the significance of interventions involving intestinal gut bacteria and host metabolic phenotypes. We assess important biological molecular mechanisms underlying the impact of gut microbiota on hosts including bile salt metabolism, short-chain fatty acids, and metabolic endotoxemia. Some previous studies have shown a link between microbiota and obesity, and associated disease reports have been documented. Thus, this review focuses on obesity and gut microbiota interactions and further develops the mechanism of the gut microbiome approach related to human obesity. Specifically, we highlight several alternative diet treatments including dietary changes and supplementation with probiotics. The future direction or comparative significance of fecal transplantation, synbiotics, and metabolomics as an approach to the modulation of intestinal microbes is also discussed.
Keywords: diet; gut microbiome; mechanism; obesity; probiotics.