Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Aging Evaluation of Pigment-Protein Complex Extracted from Chlorella Pyrenoidosa

Mar Drugs. 2019 Oct 16;17(10):586. doi: 10.3390/md17100586.


Oxidative stress contributes to chronic inflammatory processes implicated in aging, referred to as "inflamm-aging." In this study, the potential anti-inflammatory and anti-aging effects of a pigment-protein complex (PPC) from Chlorella pyrenoidosa were investigated using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages and D-galactose (D-gal)-induced aging in a murine model. Results indicated that PPC inhibits the production of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6, and the inflammatory mediator nitric oxide (NO) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. It also protected mice from D-gal induced informatory aging by increasing the activity of the antioxidant enzyme, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), inhibiting D-gal-induced NF-κB upregulation, and increasing PPARs expression in the brain and gut. The findings indicated that PPC has favorable anti-inflammatory and anti-aging properties, and could be useful in the treatment of acute inflammation and senescence diseases.

Keywords: Chlorella pyrenoidosa; NF-κB; PPARs; anti-aging; anti-inflammation; pigment–protein complex.

MeSH terms

  • Aging / drug effects*
  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology*
  • Antioxidants / metabolism
  • Biological Products / pharmacology*
  • Chlorella / chemistry*
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Galactose / metabolism
  • Inflammation / drug therapy*
  • Inflammation / metabolism
  • Interleukin-6 / metabolism
  • Lipopolysaccharides / pharmacology
  • Macrophages / drug effects
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • NF-kappa B / metabolism
  • Nitric Oxide / metabolism
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects
  • RAW 264.7 Cells
  • Superoxide Dismutase / metabolism
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Antioxidants
  • Biological Products
  • Cytokines
  • Interleukin-6
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • NF-kappa B
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Nitric Oxide
  • Superoxide Dismutase
  • Galactose