Background: Previous studies have shown conflicting findings regarding the relation of vitamin D status and supplementation during pregnancy with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Most of these studies hypothesized that 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations were associated with GDM risk and glucose metabolism based on linear association models.
Objectives: We aimed to estimate the associations of 25(OH)D concentrations and vitamin D supplementation with GDM risk and glucose metabolism and determine the threshold concentrations of 25(OH)D that could significantly affect glucose metabolism and GDM risk.
Methods: In a prospective birth cohort study, we collected information about sociodemographic characteristics, health status, and lifestyle from 4984 pregnant women. Vitamin D supplementation and 25(OH)D concentrations were assessed in the second trimester. Data from the 75-g oral-glucose-tolerance test were obtained at 24-28 weeks of gestation.
Results: A total of 922 (18.5%) women were diagnosed with GDM. Compared with women with 25(OH)D concentrations <25 nmol/L, the GDM risk was significantly lower in women with 25(OH)D concentrations ranging from 50 to 75 nmol/L (RR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.95) and >75 nmol/L (RR: 0.40; 95% CI: 0.22, 0.70). The curve-fitting models suggested a significant large reduction in GDM risk, fasting plasma glucose, and area under the curve of glucose with increasing 25(OH)D concentrations only for concentrations >50 nmol/L. Consistently, GDM risk was significantly reduced only in women who took 400-600 IU vitamin D/d (RR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.70, 0.97) with a mean 25(OH)D concentration of 50 nmol/L but not in women taking vitamin D sometimes with a mean 25(OH)D concentration of 40 nmol/L.
Conclusions: GDM risk was significantly reduced only in pregnant women with 25(OH)D concentrations >50 nmol/L. Pregnant women taking 400-600 IU vitamin D/d with mean 25(OH)D concentrations of 50 nmol/L had a lower risk of GDM.
Keywords: gestational diabetes mellitus; indexes of glucose metabolism; pregnant woman; vitamin D; vitamin D supplementation.
Copyright © The Author(s) 2019.