Swimming Pool-Associated Vittaforma-Like Microsporidia Linked to Microsporidial Keratoconjunctivitis Outbreak, Taiwan

Emerg Infect Dis. 2019 Nov;25(11):2100-2103. doi: 10.3201/eid2511.181483.


We analyzed 2 batches of environmental samples after a microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis outbreak in Taiwan. Results indicated a transmission route from a parking lot to a foot washing pool to a swimming pool and suggested that accumulation of mud in the foot washing pool during the rainy season might be a risk factor.

Keywords: Taiwan; Vittaforma corneae; Vittaforma-like microsporidia; keratitis; microsporidia; microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis; parasites; swimming resort; transmission route.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Disease Outbreaks
  • Humans
  • Keratoconjunctivitis, Infectious / epidemiology*
  • Keratoconjunctivitis, Infectious / microbiology*
  • Microsporidiosis / epidemiology*
  • Microsporidiosis / microbiology*
  • Public Health Surveillance
  • Swimming Pools*
  • Taiwan / epidemiology
  • Vittaforma* / isolation & purification
  • Water Microbiology*