Stress granules and P-bodies are cytosolic biomolecular condensates that dynamically form by the phase separation of RNAs and proteins. They participate in translational control and buffer the proteome. Upon stress, global translation halts and mRNAs bound to the translational machinery and other proteins coalesce to form stress granules (SGs). Similarly, translationally stalled mRNAs devoid of translation initiation factors shuttle to P-bodies (PBs). Here, we review the cumulative progress made in defining the protein components that associate with mammalian SGs and PBs. We discuss the composition of SG and PB proteomes, supported by a new user-friendly database (http://rnagranuledb.lunenfeld.ca/) that curates current literature evidence for genes or proteins associated with SGs or PBs. As previously observed, the SG and PB proteomes are biased toward intrinsically disordered regions and have a high propensity to contain primary sequence features favoring phase separation. We also provide an outlook on how the various components of SGs and PBs may cooperate to organize and form membraneless organelles.
Keywords: P-bodies; RNA-binding proteins; biomolecular condensates; intrinsically disordered regions; literature-curated database; membraneless organelles; phase separation; processing bodies; proteomes; stress granules.
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