Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
, 10 (10)

Cold Tolerance and Population Dynamics of Leptoglossus zonatus (Hemiptera: Coreidae)


Cold Tolerance and Population Dynamics of Leptoglossus zonatus (Hemiptera: Coreidae)

Kristen E Tollerup. Insects.


In California's San Joaquin Valley, feeding by the coreid pest, Leptoglossus zonatus, can cause considerable economic loss on almond and pistachio. This research was conducted to improve understanding of how winter temperatures affect mortality of overwintering adult L. zonatus and to develop a better understanding of the role pomegranate plays in the species' life-history. We exposed 7410 field-collected adult L. zonatus to temperatures between -2 and -10 °C for a period of three, four, or six hours using insect incubators. At six hours of exposure, the, LD50 and LD95 occur at -5.8 and -9.7 °C, respectively. We classified L. zonatus as chill-intolerant. Temperatures cold enough to affect substantial mortality of overwintering L. zonatus rarely occur in the San Joaquin Valley. Whole aggregation destructive sampling from a pomegranate hedgerow in Fresno County was conducted to determine population dynamics. At late summer to early fall, aggregations consisted of >90% immature stages. By early to mid-winter, mean aggregation size decreased, consisting of only three to 12 late-instars and adults. During years one and two of the experiment, L. zonatus produced a generation on pomegranate, mostly between September and mid-November. Overwintering did not occur on pomegranate, rather the majority of adults emigrated to other overwintering locations by mid-winter.

Keywords: California’s San Joaquin Valley; almond; egg production; leaffooted bug; overwintering; pomegranate; truebug.

Conflict of interest statement

The author declares no conflict of interest.


Figure 1
Figure 1
Dissected female with developed eggs.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Probit models for exposure to three, four, and six hours of sub-freezing temperature.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Mean number of individuals and percentage of early, late, and adult L. zonatus per aggregation sampled. Aggregations collected on pomegranate (19 Oct 2016 to 17 Jan 2017, and 26 Sept 2017 to 15 Dec 2017). Aggregations collected on Cypress (8 Feb 2017 to 15 Mar 2017, and 24 Jan 2018 to 6 Mar 2018).

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 1 PubMed Central articles


    1. Rice R.E., Bentley W.J., Beede R.H. Insect and Mite Pests of Pistachio in California. Oakland, Calif.: Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California; Oakland, CA, USA: 1989. p. 26.
    1. Zalom F.G., Haviland D.R., Symmes E.J., Tollerup K.E. University of California IPM Pest Management Guidelines, Publication 3431. University of California, Agriculture and Natural Resources; Oakland, CA, USA: 2017. Almond: Insect and Mites.
    1. Daane K., Yokota G.Y., Krugner R., Steffan S., Da Silva P., Beede B., Bentley W., Weinberger G. Large bugs damage pistachio nuts most severely during midseason. Calif. Agric. 2005;59:95–103. doi: 10.3733/ca.v059n02p95. - DOI
    1. Summers F.M. California Agricultural Experiment Station, Circular 513. University of California, Agriculture and Natural Resources; Oakland, CA, USA: 1962. Insect and mite pests of almond; pp. 12–13.
    1. Albrigo L.G., Bullock R.C. Injury to citrus fruit by leaf-footed and citrus plant bugs. Proc. Florida State Hortic. Soc. 1977;90:63–67.