A family consisting of eight members in three generations (age 10 months to 53 years) affected with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis was studied along with three unaffected relatives. Dermatophytosis, loss of teeth and recurrent viral infections were present in some members. Results of tests for endocrinologic, muscle or liver disease, thymoma, iron deficiency, antitissue antibodies and malabsorption were normal in all patients. Antibody function and levels, B cell counts, serum complement, leukocyte enzymes, chemotaxis, phagocytosis and adherence were normal in all members. Plasma inhibitors to lymphocyte transformation and leukocyte inhibitory factor were not found. No unique HLA haplotype or antigen segregated in this family. Evaluation of cell-mediated immunity revealed total cutaneous anergy in three of eight whereas four of the other five had negative lymphocyte transformation and skin tests to Candida but responded normally to other antigens. Leukocyte inhibitory factor was not produced to Candida antigen in all four patients tested. T cell counts were within normal limits in all. Extensive evaluation of all limbs of the immune system in this family revealed a defect in cell-mediated immunity to Candida that appeared to be inherited as a dominant characteristic.