Periodontal status of children with primary immunodeficiencies: a systematic review

Clin Oral Investig. 2020 Jun;24(6):1939-1951. doi: 10.1007/s00784-019-03055-z. Epub 2019 Oct 18.


Objective: The aim of this systematic review was to appraise the existing literature on periodontal disease in children affected by different types of neutrophil-associated primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs).

Methods: A PRESS-validated search strategy was developed to search through databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, LILACS, Google Scholar and Open Grey. All included studies were assessed for methodological quality and risk of bias.

Results: One hundred eighteen articles reporting on 160 PID patients were included for qualitative analysis. The majority (70%) were individual case reports. Clinical and radiographic manifestations of the periodontal disease included poor oral hygiene, generalised alveolar bone loss, severe gingival inflammation, increased pocket depths, tooth mobility and gingival recession. For most studies, the primary intervention was periodontal treatment in the form of scaling and root planing or dental extractions. Stabilisation of the periodontal condition varied between different PIDs. In severe congenital neutropenia (SCN), 61% of cases reported stabilisation of the periodontal condition, while for all other PIDs, 'stability' was reported in less than 43% of cases.

Conclusion: The published literature suggests that patients with PIDs can present with severe periodontitis and that conventional treatment approaches have limited benefits.

Keywords: Immune defects; Inflammatory diseases; Paediatrics; Periodontium; Therapies.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Alveolar Bone Loss*
  • Child
  • Gingivitis*
  • Humans
  • Immune System Diseases* / complications
  • Periodontal Diseases* / complications
  • Periodontitis*
  • Root Planing