Genetic and Clinical Profile of Chinese Patients with Autosomal Dominant Spastic Paraplegia

Mol Diagn Ther. 2019 Dec;23(6):781-789. doi: 10.1007/s40291-019-00426-w.


Background: Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) refers to a group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by bilateral weakness, spasticity, and hyperreflexia in the lower limbs. The autosomal dominant HSP (ADHSP) predominantly presents as the pure form, but the clinical profiles and causal genetic variants underlying ADHSP are complex, and many remain unknown.

Methods: A cohort of 15 Chinese HSP pedigrees (including 35 patients and their 22 relatives) were screened by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) or whole-exome sequencing (WES). Neurological assessments were also conducted.

Results: The main subtypes of HSP above detected in our cohort were SPG4, SPG3A, and SPG6. Fifteen HSP-inducing mutations were identified, among which six were novel mutations: SPAST c.1277T>C, c.1292G>C, c.1562T>C, and c.1693A>T, NIPA1 c.748A>C, and KIDINS220 c.4448C>G. As expected, the most common presentation of the ADHSP cases was the pure form, manifesting spasticity of lower limbs and hyperreflexia, as well as pyramidal signs. Differing substantially from previous reports for KIDINS220 variants, our study family exhibited autosomal dominant inheritance, and only presented with spastic paraplegia, with no signs of intellectual disability, nystagmus, or obesity.

Conclusion: Our work reveals a non-classical spastic paraplegia, intellectual disability, nystagmus, and obesity phenotype for a KIDINS220 mutation, which broadens both the clinical and genetic spectrum for ADHSP. Beyond underscoring the utility of using both MLPA and WES in studies of HSP, our work deepens the scientific understanding of phenotypes for ADHSP and defines new genetic variants to facilitate future diagnoses.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Asian People / genetics*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Codon, Nonsense
  • Exome Sequencing
  • Female
  • Genetic Association Studies / methods*
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Intellectual Disability / genetics
  • Male
  • Membrane Proteins / genetics*
  • Middle Aged
  • Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics*
  • Nystagmus, Congenital / genetics
  • Obesity / genetics
  • Paraplegia / genetics
  • Pedigree
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide*
  • Spastic Paraplegia, Hereditary / complications
  • Spastic Paraplegia, Hereditary / genetics*
  • Spastin / genetics
  • Young Adult


  • Codon, Nonsense
  • KIDINS220 protein, human
  • Membrane Proteins
  • NIPA1 protein, human
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • Spastin
  • SPAST protein, human

Supplementary concepts

  • Spastic Paraplegia Type 4
  • Spastic paraplegia 3, autosomal dominant
  • Spastic paraplegia 6, autosomal dominant