CXCL13 Is A Biomarker Of Anti-Leucine-Rich Glioma-Inactivated Protein 1 Encephalitis Patients

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2019 Oct 11;15:2909-2915. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S222258. eCollection 2019.


Background: Although antibody-mediated immune responses are considered pathogenic and responsible for neural injury in anti-leucine-rich glioma-inactivated protein 1 (anti-LGI1) encephalitis, previous studies have indicated that cytokines and chemokines might play roles in the pathogenic process by serving as B cell enhancers. In this study, we detected the profiles of cytokines and chemokines in the cerebral fluid (CSF) and serum of patients with anti-LGI1 encephalitis to identify potential biomarkers.

Methods: Sixteen patients diagnosed with anti-LGI1 encephalitis and nine patients diagnosed with noninflammatory neurologic disorders were included in the study. Cytokines and chemokines including IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, CXCL12, CXCL13, BAFF and HMGB1 in serum and CSF were measured.

Results: The serum and CSF levels of CXCL13 were significantly higher in patients with anti-LGI1 encephalitis (36.32±34.71 pg/mL and 2.23±2.41 pg/mL, respectively) than in controls (10.84±5.02 pg/mL and 0.34±0.21 pg/mL, respectively). There was no significant difference in serum or CSF levels of IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, CXCL12, BAFF and HMGB1 between the two groups.

Conclusion: CXCL13 is a potential biomarker of active inflammation in anti-LGI1 encephalitis. The distinctive response of cytokines and chemokines might be closely linked to the mechanisms underlying this condition.

Keywords: CXCL13; biomarker; cytokine; encephalitis; leucine-rich glioma-inactivated protein 1.