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Review
. 2019 Sep;11(Suppl 14):S1761-S1766.
doi: 10.21037/jtd.2019.05.10.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Classification, Phenotypes and Risk Assessment

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Free PMC article
Review

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Classification, Phenotypes and Risk Assessment

Prasad Manian. J Thorac Dis. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous disease. Various classification systems and phenotypes have been proposed. This review highlights the current classifications of COPD, describes the major phenotypes and provides a blue print for risk assessment of COPD. It is likely that more phenotypes and endotypes of COPD will be described paving the way to personalized medicine for patients with COPD.

Keywords: COPD classification; COPD phenotype.

Conflict of interest statement

Conflicts of Interest: The author has no conflicts of interest to declare.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Factors that contribute to the heterogeneity in COPD. COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Figure 2
Figure 2
COPD GOLD ABCD Assessment tool (reproduced with permission from Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease). COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; GOLD, Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Non-proportional Venn diagram of COPD. COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Asthma COPD overlap. COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

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