Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease classification, phenotypes and risk assessment

J Thorac Dis. 2019 Sep;11(Suppl 14):S1761-S1766. doi: 10.21037/jtd.2019.05.10.


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous disease. Various classification systems and phenotypes have been proposed. This review highlights the current classifications of COPD, describes the major phenotypes and provides a blue print for risk assessment of COPD. It is likely that more phenotypes and endotypes of COPD will be described paving the way to personalized medicine for patients with COPD.

Keywords: COPD classification; COPD phenotype.

Publication types

  • Review