2019 update of the drug resistance mutations in HIV-1

Top Antivir Med. 2019 Sep;27(3):111-121.


The 2019 edition of the IAS-USA drug resistance mutations list updates the Figure last published in January 2017. The mutations listed are those that have been identified by specific criteria for evidence and drugs described. The Figure is designed to assist practitioners in identifying key mutations associated with resistance to antiretroviral drugs, and therefore, in making clinical decisions regarding antiretroviral therapy.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Substitution
  • Anti-HIV Agents / pharmacology*
  • Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use
  • Drug Resistance, Viral / genetics*
  • Genes, Viral / genetics
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy
  • HIV Infections / virology
  • HIV Protease Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • HIV-1 / drug effects*
  • HIV-1 / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Mutation*
  • Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • United States


  • Anti-HIV Agents
  • HIV Protease Inhibitors
  • Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors