Objective: To evaluate the roles of thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT), inosine triphosphatase (ITPA), and Nudix hydrolase 15 (NUDT15) in 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) sensitivity during treatment of pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
Study design: The study included 102 pediatric patients with ALL subject to the Nordic society Of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology (NOPHO) ALL-2000 and ALL-2008 protocols. Episodes of neutropenia and febrile neutropenia, TPMT sequence variants, as well as 6-MP end doses, were collected retrospectively from medical records. TPMT, ITPA, and NUDT15 sequence variants were analyzed using pyrosequencing.
Results: TPMT variants were associated with a reduced risk of neutropenia and febrile neutropenia during the maintenance II period (P = .019 and P < .0001, respectively). In addition, a NUDT15 variant was associated with a lower end dose of 6-MP (P = .0097), but not with neutropenia and febrile neutropenia. ITPA variants were not associated with an increased risk of neutropenia, febrile neutropenia, nor lower end dose of 6-MP. However, when analyzing the entire treatment period, ITPA variants were associated with a decreased risk of febrile neutropenia.
Conclusions: White blood cell count-based dose adjustments are regularly performed for known TPMT- deficient patients and results in a reduced risk of neutropenia and febrile neutropenia. Also in NUDT15-deficient patients dose adjustments are performed as indicated by low end dose of 6-MP. ITPA-deficient patients had a decreased risk of febrile neutropenia when analyzing the entire treatment period. Our data suggest that NUDT15 plays an important role in 6-MP treatment and the results should be confirmed in larger cohorts. Future studies should also follow up whether white blood cell count-based dose adjustments affect the risk of relapse.
Keywords: 6-MP; ITPA; NUDT15; TPMT; febrile neutropenia; neutropenia.
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