Background: Listeriosis may cause severe disease in fetuses and neonates. The outcomes of critically ill neonates with early-onset listeriosis requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) from 1975 to 1991 have been reported.
Objective: To update the characteristics and outcomes of neonates with listeriosis supported by ECMO.
Study design: Retrospective study of neonates with culture-proven listeriosis reported to the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Registry between 1991 and 2017. Comparisons were made between this cohort and the case series from 1975-1991.
Results: Twenty-two neonates had culture-proven Listeria monocytogenes infection and required ECMO support. Eight-six percent survived to discharge, compared with 67% in the previous cohort (p = 0.2). The median ECMO duration was 131 h, compared with 209 h in the previous cohort (p = 0.1). Nonsurvivors had a significantly lower pre-ECMO pH (6.91 vs 7.31, p = 0.0006).
Conclusion: The survival of neonates with listeriosis supported with ECMO is high, supporting the use of ECMO as rescue therapy for this condition.