In this review, we describe the absorption rates (Caco-2 cell permeability) and hepatic/plasma pharmacokinetics of 53 diverse chemicals estimated by modeling virtual oral administration in rats. To ensure that a broad range of chemical structures is present among the selected substances, the properties described by 196 chemical descriptors in a chemoinformatics tool were calculated for 50,000 randomly selected molecules in the original chemical space. To allow visualization, the resulting chemical space was projected onto a two-dimensional plane using generative topographic mapping. The calculated absorbance rates of the chemicals based on cell permeability studies were found to be inversely correlated to the no-observed-effect levels for hepatoxicity after oral administration, as obtained from the Hazard Evaluation Support System Integrated Platform in Japan (r = -0.88, p < 0.01, n = 27). The maximum plasma concentrations and the areas under the concentration-time curves (AUC) of a varied selection of chemicals were estimated using two different methods: simple one-compartment models (i.e., high-throughput toxicokinetic models) and simplified physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling consisting of chemical receptor (gut), metabolizing (liver), and central (main) compartments. The results obtained from the two methods were consistent. Although the maximum concentrations and AUC values of the 53 chemicals roughly correlated in the liver and plasma, inconsistencies were apparent between empirically measured concentrations and the PBPK-modeled levels. The lowest-observed-effect levels and the virtual hepatic AUC values obtained using PBPK models were inversely correlated (r = -0.78, p < 0.05, n = 7). The present simplified PBPK models could estimate the relationships between hepatic/plasma concentrations and oral doses of general chemicals using both forward and reverse dosimetry. These methods are therefore valuable for estimating hepatotoxicity.
Keywords: Caco-2 permeability; Hepatotoxicity; Lowest-observed-effect level; No-observed-effect level; PBPK modeling.
Copyright © 2019 The Korean Society Of Toxicology.
Conflict of interest statement
CONFLICT OF INTEREST There is no conflict of interest.
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