Contingent role of phoenixin and nesfatin-1 on secretions of the male reproductive hormones

Andrologia. 2019 Dec;51(11):e13410. doi: 10.1111/and.13410. Epub 2019 Oct 21.


Phoenixin (PNX) and nesfatin-1 are localised in the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. Moreover, the most of the PNX-expressing neurons in the hypothalamus also co-express nesfatin-1. These outcomes may suggest that there is an interaction between PNX and nesfatin-1, at least in terms of neuroendocrine-mediated regulations. Hence, the study was planned to find out the effects of centrally delivered PNX and nesfatin-1 on male sex hormones or to show the interactive association of intracerebroventricularly (ICV) injected PNX+nesfatin-1 combination on the release of male hormones. PNX and nesfatin-1, single or together, were delivered ICV to different male Wistar Albino rat groups. Both PNX and nesfatin-1 induced a significant enhancement in plasma FSH, LH and testosterone without inducing any alteration in plasma GnRH in the rats. The central combinatorial treatment of both the neuropeptides produced a more potent rise in male plasma hormone levels than treating with single neuropeptide. In summary, our preliminary data show that centrally delivered PNX and nesfatin-1 can affect plasma male hormone levels. Moreover, that the combinatorial treatment with both the neuropeptides in male rats leading to a more potent effect on the plasma male hormone levels might suggest that both these neuropeptides act synergistically in terms of regulation of male HPGA.

Keywords: hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis; intracerebroventricular; male sex hormones; nesfatin-1; phoenixin.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / blood*
  • Gonadotropins, Pituitary / blood*
  • Hypothalamic Hormones / physiology*
  • Male
  • Nucleobindins / physiology*
  • Peptide Hormones / physiology*
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Testosterone / blood*


  • Gonadotropins, Pituitary
  • Hypothalamic Hormones
  • Nucb2 protein, rat
  • Nucleobindins
  • Peptide Hormones
  • phoenixin-20
  • Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
  • Testosterone